Libya is mostly barren, with flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions. More than 90% of the country is desert or semi-desert. The highest point is Bikku Bitti at 2,267 meters. The climate of Libya is Mediterranean along the coast, and dry, extreme desert in the interior. Natural hazards include the hot, dry, dust-laden southern wind called “ghibli” in Libya, but otherwise known as Sirocco, lasting one to four days in Spring and Fall, as well as dust storms, and sandstorms.
Major environmental issues include desertification, and limited natural freshwater resources. The Great Man-Made River project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities. Water pollution is a significant problem; the combined impact of sewage, oil byproducts, and industrial waste threatens Libya’s coast and the Mediterranean Sea.
There are 24 protected areas listed for Libya, including 4 national parks, 4 nature reserves, 14 “protected areas”, and 2 wetlands of international importance. There are no UNESCO biosphere reserves in Libya. Apparently, the official Environment General Authority (EGA) maintains offices in Tripoli and Bayda, but nothing online. The Libyan Wildlife Trust, Libyan Society For Birds, and Libyan Youth Climate Movement maintain social media presence on Facebook.
Well over 90% of the Libyan population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the West and Bayda to the East. The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911, and did not relinquish their hold until defeated in World War II. Libya then passed into UN administration, until it achieved independence in 1951.
The dictator Muammar Gaddafi ruled Libya for 42 years, from 1969 to 2011. During this time, Gaddafi was responsible for three international terrorist attacks, including two downed airliners and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. Since the Libyan “Arab Spring” of 2011, the country remains unstable. As of 2018, destabilised Libya has become a notorious transshipment route for human trafficking out of Africa, according to Doctors Without Borders.
As of 2018, Libya is not issuing tourist visas, according to Wikipedia. There is a website online for the Libyan Department of Antiquities. There is a List of museums in Libya on Wikipedia. As of 2018, all five of Libya’s cultural world heritage sites are listed as in danger by UNESCO.
Cultural World Heritage:
- Archaeological Site of Cyrene (1982)
- Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (1982)
- Archaeological Site of Sabratha (1982)
- Old Town of Ghadamès (1986)
- Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (1985)
- The Effect Of Libyan Political Crisis 2013/2015 On Tourism Businesses’ Marketing Performances – SGM Elkrghli – 2017
- The motivational factors for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Tourism in Libya – KHA Elgamodi – 2017
- The Relationship between Political Conflict (2013/2016) and Marketing Performances of Libyan Tourism SMEs – S Elkrghli – 2017
- Tourism Development and Its Role in the Urban Expansion of Al-Khomse City, Libya – K Klib, Y Azzam, I Maarouf – 2017
- How Libyan tourism firms develop dynamic capabilities in response to the Arab spring crisis – HEL Mansour – 2016
- The Importance of SMEs in Libyan Tourism Sector – A Alammari, AA Khalif, G Othman – 2016
- Firms adaptation to environmental turbulence: The case of the Libyan tourism sector – HEL Mansour – 2015
- Geological tourism Northeast Libya – BK Khameiss, AL Abdelfatah Hamed, Z Hdhireia, AL Nour Alden – 2015
- Role of SMEs in Libyan tourism sector – A Alammari, AA Khalif, G Othman – 2015
- Dealing with environmental turbulence in the Libyan tourism environment: Dynamic capabilities of Libyan tourism firms – H Mansour, B Butler, S Ananthram… – 2014
- Market orientation and Libyan tourism business’ performances: a comparative study between public and private sector – SGM Elkrghli – 2014
- Sustainable development in Libya. Stakeholders’ attitudes towards sustainable tourism development in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi City, Libya – M Amhemed – 2014
- The effect of tourism services on the Level of Satisfaction Applied Study on International Tourists Visiting Libya – AT Abuharris – 2014
- Valuing natural and cultural resources for Eco-Cultural Tourism development: Libya’s Green Mountain, Libya – NJ Palmer, A Mohammed – 2014
- A New Strategic Approach for Tourism Planning and Marketing in Libya – H Bizan – 2013
- Development of a Total Quality Management Framework for Libyan tourism sector – MSAA Ibrahim – 2013
- Framework For E-Tourism Development In Libya – MS Mokraf – 2013
- Libya-beyond the Arab spring: Tourism prospects and organizational climate in 4-and 5-star hotels – J Youssef, G Lafferty, G Teal – 2013
- Libyan Tourism and Rescuing Strategy (Importance of Image) – HA Ali – 2013
- Perspectives Of Total Quality Management In Tourism Educational Institutions In West Libya – SA Abuaisha, M Lutovac – 2013
- Empires of tourism: travel and rhetoric in Italian colonial Libya and Albania, 1911–1943 – SM Hom – 2012
- The Messak project. Cultural and natural preservation and sustainable tourism (south-western Libya) – M Gallinaro, C Gauthier, Y Gauthier, JL Le Quellec… – 2012
- An exploration of tourism development theory and potential educational responses in Eastern Libya – MR Emragea – 2011
- Destination Libya: Developing Libya as an internationally competitive tourism destination – AEO Khalifa – 2010
- Factors Affecting Tourism Advertisement Effectiveness in Libya – MA Burmad – 2010
- GIS-based mobile tourism architecture prototype for Libya (A case study) – AA Emhmed, K Chellapan – 2010
- Analysis of Tourism Development in Libya – KO Alfartas – 2009
- The Ambivalent Space(s) of Tourism in Italian Colonial Libya – BL McLaren – 2009
- The Relationship between Internet Usage and the Marketing of Tourism in Libya – AMO Elkwash – 2009