Eritrea is on the Red Sea, dominated by north-south highlands descending on the east to a coastal desert plain. The highest point is Emba Soira at 3,018 meters. Two historically active volcanoes include, Dubbi (1861) and Nabro (2011). Eritrea is hot and dry along Red Sea coast, and cooler and wetter in the central highlands.

Summertime in Eritrea, June to September, sees the heaviest rainfall. Natural hazards include frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and locust swarms. Deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, and overgrazing are the major environmental issues. There are four protected areas listed for Eritrea, 1 marine national park, and 3 wildlife reserves.

Protected Areas:


Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia on the Red Sea on independence from Ethiopia in 1993, along world’s busiest shipping lanes. Population is highest in the center of the country, in and around the cities of Asmara and Keren. Isaias Afwerki, basically a dictator, has ruled Eritrea since independence. 

The capital city, Asmara, is listed as UNESCO cultural world heritage, “a Modernist City of Africa”. The archaeological site at Qohaito is on the UNESCO list of tentative world heritage.


  • Diaspora tourism and the negotiation of belonging: journeys of young second-generation Eritreans to Eritrea – S Graf – 2017
  • Forest and Wildlife Conservation in Eritrea – H Tesfamichael – 2017
  • Sustainable Tourism Development in Eritrea: Assessing the Potential of the Tourism Industry as an Asset to Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation in Massawa and the Dahlak Archipelago – A Haile – 2017
  • Future prospects of coastal tourism in Eritrea – K Masihulla – 2014
  • Geo-Archaeological Endowments And The Tourism Development In Eritrea – MA Alam, NK Mishra – 2013
  • How GIS Could Be Used As A Tool To Enhance The Tourism Sectors? A Case Study Of Eritrea – MA Alam – 2012
  • Tourism and the Eritrean diaspora – A Arnone – 2011
  • Tourism development in Eritrea: a study on its problems & prospects – C Shankar, BC Das – 2010
  • Tourism Development in Post-Independent Eritrea-Problems and Prospects – P Rena – 2009

Eritrea Data