Ethiopia is mostly high plateau with a central mountain range, divided by the Great Rift Valley. The highest point is Ras Dashen at 4,550 meters. The Great Rift Valley is susceptible to earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Erta Ale is the country’s most active volcano. Dabbahu Volcano is also active. Despite the Blue Nile, chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rising in Lake Tana in the northwest, Ethiopia is subject to drought. Ethiopia has a tropical wet climate, but with wide variation due to topography.

Environmental issues include deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, desertification, loss of biodiversity, and water shortages in some areas. There is also industrial pollution, from hazardous chemicals and pesticides, contributing to air, water, and soil pollution. The Ethiopian wolf, restricted to just six isolated mountaintop areas of the Ethiopian highlands, is the most prominent conservation target in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme maintains a website at

There are at least 104 protected areas listed for Ethiopia, including national parks, wildlife reserves, national forests, hunting areas, sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, and one natural world heritage site, Simien Mountains National Park. The Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority is a government agency with an active Facebook presence. Population, Health and Environment Ethiopia Consortium is a group of ad-hoc member organisations, primarily concerned with healthy families and healthy environment. MELCA Ethiopia is one NGO working in the new Majang Forest biosphere reserve.

Biosphere Reserves:


Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world. The highest population density is found in the highlands of the north and middle of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city, Addis Ababa. Unique in Africa, the Ethiopian monarchy maintained freedom from colonial rule, with the exception of a short Italian occupation (1936-1941). Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown by a socialist junta in 1974, which lasted 17 years, until toppled by a coalition of rebel forces in 1991.

The official Ethiopian Tourism Organization maintains a website at Being a mountainous country, whitewater rafting in Ethiopia has become popular, on both the Blue Nile and Omo River. Ethiopia is also known for Rastafarian religion. The town of Shashamane is known to be the center of Rastafari in Ethiopia, and lies on the Trans-African Highway 4 that goes from Cape Town To Cairo. Ethiopia has 8 cultural World Heritage sites. These cultural sites represent 3 towns, 2 rivers, and 1 archaeological site, in addition to the castle at Fasil Ghebbi and rock-hewn churches at Lalibela.

Cultural World Heritage:


  • Alternative Livelihood Options and Sustainable Tourism: the Case of Gich Community Resettlement, Debark or Semin Mountain National Park, Ethiopia. – M Eyobe, A Derje, T Ashenafi – 2017
  • Alternative Livelihood Options for Gich Local Community a Perspective on Sustainable Tourism Development: the Case of Newly Resettle Site of Debark/Semin Mountain National Park, Ethiopia. – E Mesfin, D Amene, A Taffess – 2017
  • Assessing Protected Areas for Ecotourism Development: the Case of Maze National Park, Ethiopia – H Bekele, E Teshome… – 2017
  • Challenges and Prospects of Community Based Ecotourism Development in Lake Zengena and Its Environs, North West Ethiopia – ZB Beza, D Berhan – 2017
  • Ecotourism Potentials, Challenges and Prospects of Maze National Park, South West Ethiopia – WG Andabo – 2017
  • GIS Based Ecotourism Potential Assessment in Munessa Shashemene Concession Forest and Its Surrounding Area, Ethiopia – K Nino, Y Mamo, G Mengesha, KS Kibret – 2017
  • Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects for Ecotourism Development in Dida Hara Conservation Site, Borena National Park, Ethiopia – TF Nigatu – 2017
  • Opportunities and Challenges for Community-based Ecotourism Development: a Case Study in Dinsho and Goba Woredas, Southeast Ethiopia – IP Menbere, TP Menbere – 2017
  • Practices and Challenges of Promoting Major Tourism Destinations of Bale Zone for Sustainable Tourism Development in Ethiopia – BE Bayih, MW Tola – 2017
  • Who Benefits From the Ecotourism Sector in Southern Ethiopia? – A Wondirad – 2017
  • An Assessment of Ecotourism as an Effective Tool for Sustainable Forest Management: the Case of Adaba-dodola, Ethiopia – M Wilder – 2016
  • Biocultural Values in Borena Sayint National Park, North-eastern Ethiopia: Contributions of Ethno Botany for Ecotourism Diversification – H Adal – 2016
  • Challenges and Opportunities of Community Based Ecotourism Development in Ethiopia – ST Lema – 2016
  • Challenges and Prospects of Ecotourism Development the Case of Kelala Woreda, in South Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia – A Kidanemariam – 2016
  • Opportunities and Challenges for Community Based Ecotourism Development: the Case of Alatish National Park; Northwest Ethiopia – K Berhanu, M Kash – 2016
  • Potentiality Assessment for Ecotourism Development in Dida Hara Conservation Site of Borena National Park, Ethiopia – TF Nigatu – 2016
  • Sustainable Ecotourism Potentials and Its Challenges in Ethiopia: the Awash National Park in Focus – BT Getahun, YA Yeshanew – 2016
  • The Attitudes of Tourists Towards the Eco-tourism Attributes of Simien National Park, Ethiopia – P Krishnaiah – 2016
  • The Current Status of Ecotourism Potentials and Challenges in Sheko District, South-western Ethiopia – ZA Yilma, MM Reta, BT Tefera – 2016
  • Tourism Potentials and Community-based Ecotourism (CBET) Development: the Case of Choke Mountain and Its Environs, Ethiopia – A Aseres – 2016
  • Contribution of Local Community for Ecotourism Development in and Around Abijata—shalla Lakes National Park With Emphasis to Women’s Role, Ethiopia – F Mequanint, S Gebremedhin – 2015
  • Development of Community Based Ecotourism in Wenchi Crater Lake, Ethiopia: Challenges and Prospects – TD Ketema – 2015
  • Inside the Commons of Ecotourism Development in Ethiopia: Strategic Communal Empowerment or Marginalization? Evidence From Wenchi Community Based Ecotourism – DK Teressa – 2015
  • Multi-criteria Evaluation in Identification of Potential Ecotourism Sites in Hawassa Town and Its Surroundings, Ethiopia – KV Suryabhagavan, H Tamirat… – 2015
  • Review on Problems, Prospects and Economic Contribution of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism in Ethiopia. – B Malede, G Girma – 2015
  • Threats of Biodiversity Conservation and Ecotourism Activities in Nechsar National Park, Ethiopia – S Chanie, D Tesfaye – 2015
  • Tourism as Sustainable Local Development Option: a Case Study in Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia – MA Demssie – 2015
  • Tourists-perceived Service Quality and Satisfaction of Sustainable Tourism in Ethiopia – A Woldesenbet – 2015
  • Wildlife Resources of Ethiopia: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions: From Ecotourism Perspective: a Review Paper – A Amare – 2015
  • Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia – TA Wondowossen, N Nakagoshi, Y Yukio… – 2014
  • Development of Community Based Ecotourism in Borena-saynt National Park, North Central Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges – AA Eshetu – 2014
  • Ecotourism Potential and Its Role for Sustainable Development and Livelihood in Awash National Park, Ethiopia – SW Dejene, H Seyoum, RU Ready – 2014
  • Planning for Sustainable Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities for Ecotourism Development in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – GS Ogato – 2014
  • Promoting Rural Local Development: the Case of Wonchi Ecotourism Society, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia – GS Ogato, F Abdise, T Gammie… – 2014
  • The Potential of Rock Art Tourism for Sustainable Socio–economic Development: the Case of Harar–dire Dawa Region, Southeastern Ethiopia. – D Leta – 2014
  • Tourism for Sustainable Livelihood in Protected Areas (the Case of Nachsar National Park, Ethiopia) – CA Tefera – 2014
  • Wetland and Eco Tourism–a Case Study of Lake Ahenge, Dess’ Aa National Forest & Hermi Natural Forest, Tigray Region of Northern Ethiopia – P Thryambakam, MSK Saini – 2014
  • Developing Sustainable (Eco) Tourism Training and Research Plans for Ethiopian Universities – R Haarhoff, SD Turner – 2013
  • Eco-tourism Development in the North Central Highlands of Ethiopian Country–special Reference to Guna Mountains, South Gondar Zone – P Krishnaiah, AEM Belaye – 2013
  • Ecotourism for Environmental Conservation and Community Livelihoods, the Case of the Bale Mountain National Park, Ethiopia – D Asmamaw, A Verma – 2013
  • Local Attitudes Towards Environmental Conservation and Ecotourism Around Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia – D Asmamaw, A Verma – 2013

Ethiopia Data